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Configuring Floating IP addresses for Networking in OpenStack Public and Private Clouds

Recently I outlined how VlanManager works and how it ensures network scalability and tenant isolation. Up to this point, however, I’ve only dealt with fixed IP networks of different tenants. While fixed IPs are what instances are given by default, they do not ensure that the instance is immediately reachable from the outside world (or from the rest of the data center). Imagine the following scenario:

You run a small LAMP website with one www server, a database server, and a firewall that handles network address translation (NAT) and traffic filtering. Typically you want the following to apply:

  • All the servers communicate internally on some private (unroutable) network range (e.g., 192.168.0.0/24).
  • There is one publicly routable IP on which the www server is visible.

You do the following:

  • Configure the firewall with the public IP.
  • Create a NAT rule on the firewall to forward traffic from the public IP to the private IP of the www server.

Fixed IPs in OpenStack work the same way as the network range 192.168.0.0/16 in the example above. They ensure only inter-instance connectivity inside a single OpenStack cluster. But OpenStack also introduces another pool of IP addresses, called “floating IPs.” Floating IPs are just publicly routable IPs that you typically buy from an ISP (the one that you put on the firewall in the above example). Users can allocate them to their instances, thus making them reachable from the outside world.

Difference between floating and fixed IPs

Floating IPs are not allocated to instances by default. Cloud users need to explicitly “grab” them from the pool configured by the OpenStack administrator and then attach them to their instances. Once the user has grabbed a floating IP from the pool, he becomes the “owner” of it (i.e., at any time he can detach the IP from a given instance and attach it to another). If an instance dies for some reason, the user does not lose the floating IP—it remains his own resource, ready to be attached to another instance. (Unfortunately, right now it is not possible to share a single floating IP among many instances for load balancing purposes, as can be done with elastic load balancing on Amazon EC2. However, lately Mirantis has open sourced a plugin for OpenStack that aims to provide such a feature.)

On the other hand, fixed IPs are allocated dynamically by the nova-network component when instances boot up. There is no way to tell OpenStack to assign a specific fixed IP to an instance. So you will probably find yourself in a situation in which once you terminate a VM accidentally and restore it from a snapshot, the new instance will most likely boot up with another fixed IP.

Systems administrators can configure multiple floating IP pools. However, unlike fixed IP pools, floating IP pools cannot be mapped to specific tenants. Each user can “grab” a floating IP from whichever floating IP pool he wants. But the main motivation behind multiple floating IP pools is that each of them can be served by a different ISP. This way, we can ensure that we maintain connectivity, even if one of the ISPs faces a breakdown.

Just to summarize, the key features of floating IPs are:

  • Floating IPs are not automatically allocated to instances by default (they need to be attached to instances manually).
  • If an instance dies, the user can reuse the floating IP by attaching it to another instance.
  • Users can grab floating IPs from different pools defined by the cloud administrator to ensure connectivity to instances from different ISPs or external networks.

Floating IPs—internal vs. public clouds

The “public visibility” of floating IPs is a relative concept. For public clouds you probably want to define a floating IP pool as a pool of IPs publicly visible from the Internet. Your clients then assign them to instances to log into them via SSH from their home/office computers:

 

If you run a corporate cloud within in your data center, then a floating IP pool can be any IP range that exposes OpenStack instances to the rest of your data center.

For your data center traffic you might have the following range defined: 10.0.0.0/16.

Inside OpenStack you could have the following fixed IP range: 192.168.0.0/16 split into the tenants subnets.

To make OpenStack instances accessible from the rest of your data center, you could define the floating IP pool as a subnet of 10.0.0.0/8, (i.e., 10.0.0.0/16) and register it with OpenStack for the users to grab from.

Working with floating IPs

As I mentioned earlier, first, the systems administrator registers a floating IP pool in OpenStack:

This way the public pool is made available for tenants.

Now users follow this workflow:

  • Boot an instance:
  • List the available floating IP pools:
  • Grab a floating IP from the pool “pub”  (or “test” if one wants):
  • Assign the floating IP to the instance:

    (where the first argument is the uuid of the instance and the second is the floating IP itself)
  • Check if everything has been properly configured:

The instance should now be visible from outside the OpenStack cluster under the floating IP.

How floating IPs work

So what happens inside the instance once the floating IP is added? The answer is…nothing. If you log in to it via SSH and display the network configuration, you will see that there is still a single network interface with a fixed IP configured.

All the setup is done on the compute node itself. All the floating IP work is nova-network’s job, which means setting up NAT between the instance’s fixed and floating IPs. An explanation of how NAT works can be found here.

Take a look at the following diagram:

 

It shows a single compute node configured in multihost networking mode and VlanManager used to configure fixed IP networks. The compute node is equipped with two network interfaces: eth0 is dedicated to fixed IP/VLAN traffic and eth1 is the interface on which the compute node is connected to the outside world and where floating IPs go. (To get to know how VlanManager configures fixed IP networks, refer to this previous post.)

Please note that while on the eth0 (fixed/private) interface we have no address configured, eth1 has an IP assigned, which is also the default gateway for the compute node (91.207.15.105).

When the user assigns a floating IP (91.207.16.144) to the instance VM_1, two things are happening:

  • The floating IP is configured as a secondary address on eth1: This is the output of “ip addr show eth1" containing the relevant entries:
  • A set of NAT rules is configured in iptables for  the floating IP. Below are all relevant entries from the compute node’s “nat” table (excerpt from the command: “iptables –S -t nat". The detailed article on how to configure NAT with Linux iptables can be found here):

    In general, nova-network adds some custom chains to those predefined in the NAT table. The order of those chains with respect to floating IP traffic is shown below (referring to the rules shown above):


  • The code responsible for setting those rules resides in nova/network/linux_net.py in the function:

Getting back to the diagram. Once the user wants to access the instance on its floating IP from the outside world (e.g., “ping 91.20.16.144″):

  • The traffic hits the compute node’s public interface (eth1). DNAT is performed in chain nova-network-PREROUTING so that the destination IP of the packets is changed from 91.207.16.144 to 10.0.0.3.
  • Compute node consults its routing table and sees it has network 10.0.0.0 available on br100 interface (excerpt from “ip route show”of the compute node):

    So it directs the packet to br100 interface, which then reaches the instance.

If an instance sends a packet to the world (e.g. “ping 8.8.8.8):

  • Since the destination address is not on instance’s local network, the packets are sent directly to instance’s default gateway, which is 10.0.0.1 (address of “br100″ device on the compute node).
  • Compute node checks its routing tables and sees that it has no 8.8.8.8 on its directly connected networks, so it forwards the packet to its default gateway (which is eth1′s primary address 91.207.15.105 in this case).
  • The packet falls into the POSTROUTING chain and gets passed to the “nova-network-float-snat” chain, where its source IP is rewritten to the instance’s floating ip (91.207.16.144).

Notes about security

When using OpenStack, the systems administrator gives complete control of iptables to nova daemons. The set of rules configured is very complex and easily broken by any external manipulation. Moreover, each time nova-network daemon is restarted, it reapplies all the rules in OpenStack-related iptables chains. If there is a need to modify iptables behavior in any way, it should be done by changing the code in relevant places of linux_net.py (for NAT rules it would be the function floating_forward_rules).

It is also worth mentioning that nova-network does not seem to be monitoring its tables in any way. So if we manually throw away some rules from OpenStack related chains, they will not be fixed until the next nova-network restart.

So a sysadmin could easily open unwanted access to the compute host itself by accident. Remember that nova-network placed the floating IP as the secondary address on eth1 and set DNAT rules that direct the traffic to the instance’s fixed IP:

So all traffic hitting 91.207.16.144 goes effectively to 10.0.0.3.

Now let’s imagine that the sysadmin was fixing some network connectivity issues during the night and flushed all the NAT rules by accident, typing:

The above NAT rule has been thrown away, but eth1 still has a secondary IP 91.207.16.144 on it. So we can still reach 91.207.16.144 from the outside world, but instead of hitting the instance, we now have access to the compute node itself (the destination IP is no longer DNATed as we flushed all the NAT rules). The hole will be open until the next restart of the nova-network process, which will set up the rules again.

Configuring floating IPs

These are flags in nova.conf that influence the behavior of floating IPs:

Final notes

The floating IP mechanism, besides exposing instances directly to the Internet, gives cloud users some flexibility. Having “grabbed” a floating IP from a pool, they can shuffle them (i.e., detach and attach them to different instances on the fly) thus facilitating new code releases and system upgrades. For sysadmins it poses a potential security risk, as the underlying mechanism (iptables) functions in a complicated way and lacks proper monitoring from the OpenStack side. Proper resource state monitoring in OpenStack is being addressed by this blueprint. Since it is still marked as a “work-in-progress”, it is very important to allow only the OpenStack software to touch firewall policies and not tamper with them by hand.

17 comments
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17 Responses

  1. hjg

    very nice article – good work

    September 19, 2012 19:11
  2. tdsparrow

    If i have multinic for instance, what will happen when i associate two floating ip to it. Can i change the NAT mapping?

    September 20, 2012 19:18
  3. Ramesh Maharjan

    Very good tutorial. helped me a lot to understand the internals of floating ips.
    but theres one question.
    i am trying to create only one floating ip but i am not able to. i can create two floating ip with “a.b.c.d/30″ but nothing happens when i do “a.b.c.d/32″. why?

    September 27, 2012 02:37
  4. ken

    nova-manage floating create –ip_range=a.b.c.d –pool=test –interface=eth2

    October 16, 2012 04:45
  5. Dan

    Hi Piotr,

    Great explanation, thanks!

    Quick question:
    Can I have the primary ip of eth1 to be from the same subnet of the floating ips?
    e.g. specify 91.207.16.50-100 range for floating ips and 91.207.16.254 for eth1(gw).

    If not, can I use vlans? e.g. have 91.207.15 for eth1.101 and 91.207.16 for eth1.102, and then all faloting ips traffic would go through vlan 102.

    November 5, 2012 07:26
  6. Nicolas

    Hello,
    Congratulations for this nice and helpful post!
    You said that “Systems administrators can configure multiple floating IP pools”… but I don’t understand how it works with more than one pool.
    If I have for example a private pool 10.10.10.0/24 and a public pool 13.13.13.0/26, can I assign a floating IP from each pool to an instance? So my switch interface must be configured as trunk right? adn what about the public_interface configuration?
    I’m asking that because it’s exactly what I have to do for my test-cloud. I wan’t to assign each VM a private IP so that this VM is reachable inside the enterprise and some of these VMs should be assigned a public IP too.
    If you have some piece of advice to do that it would be very helpful.
    Thanks in advande!

    April 10, 2013 07:11
  7. Darreon

    Thanks

    April 22, 2013 09:48
  8. Erik

    Great post. Thanks. Quick question. Why do my floating IPs show up as private IPs. i.e. after allocating a floating ip and ‘nova list’, I see both networks (fixed and floating) showing up as Private=192XXXX, 172XXXX. The 172 address is my public/floating ip. I’ve seen other nova-list output show Private=add1, Public=addr2.

    Thanks,

    Erik

    May 31, 2013 08:36
  9. John

    Hello,
    How can I add just part of the subnet as floating IPs.
    FE: my eth1 is connected to 10.0.0.0/24 LAN and I want to configure my machine to use 10.0.0.0/25 IPs only. The subnet mask that is assigned to the instances should be /24 subnet.

    Thanks.

    July 20, 2013 01:53
  10. Charles

    Hi,
    If the system administrator completely gives up the contol of iptables to nova deamons, how does he go about adding additional rules wihout code modifications.

    For example, we are deploying openstack in a production environment, where they have a set of rules in the /etc/sysconfig/iptables file. I am not sure if I could still use the file and actually if I enable the iptables service it is causing issue while running the VMs.

    - Charles

    August 28, 2013 14:47
  11. Aswin Mohanan

    [root@server2 ~(keystone_admin)]# nova-manage floating create –ip_range=192.168.1.128/25 –pool=nova –interface=eth3
    error: Floating ip 192.168.1.129 already exists.
    [root@server2 ~(keystone_admin)]# nova floating-ip-create nova
    ERROR: FloatingIpPoolNotFound: Floating ip pool not found. (HTTP 404) (Request-ID: req-62c7bd5b-0093-41ac-b5a6-af020a519c71)
    [root@server2 ~(keystone_admin)]# nova floating-ip-pool-list

    [root@server2 ~(keystone_admin)]# nova floating-ip-create pub
    ERROR: FloatingIpPoolNotFound: Floating ip pool not found. (HTTP 404) (Request-ID: req-dc85e4d4-4f45-4552-911a-f8970ef0e3f3)
    [root@server2 ~(keystone_admin)]#

    Can you please help me on this?

    December 18, 2013 00:29
  12. Sunny

    It is really a good knowledge sharing article helpful to me

    December 26, 2013 21:05
  13. Tahder

    Thanks for good articles.

    But I have few questions to ask, how do i able to do internet on the vm(instance)? in my configurations it can remotely access both public/private IPs as following your article. Or I think my DNS doesn’t work as I don’t know where to configure in the nova.conf but I able to use nslookup and get me results.

    February 12, 2014 18:29
  14. Vilas Balaganur

    Hello All,

    I deployed latest devstack code and tried to access outside world from
    openstack
    instance. Before assigning floating-ip to an instance I am able to ping
    google.com,
    but after assigning floating-ip to that instance I am not able to ping
    google.com from that instance.

    Does anyone has any idea?
    Any help would be highly appreciated.

    Thanks and Regards,

    April 9, 2014 03:54

Continuing the Discussion

  1. Some practical considerations for monitoring in OpenStack cloud » MountainStack

    [...] instance to which it was pointing and OpenStack still reports the floating IP as “associated.” (This post explains how floating IPs [...]

    June 18, 201300:06
  2. Floating IPs in OpenStack | Marks Development Blog

    [...] http://www.mirantis.com/blog/configuring-floating-ip-addresses-networking-openstack-public-private-c… Share this:TwitterFacebookGoogleLike this:Like Loading… This entry was posted in OpenStack. Bookmark the permalink. [...]

    September 4, 201301:01

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